One of the hurdles that new Python developers have to get over is understanding the Python packaging ecosystem.Jamie Matthews
One of the hurdles that new Python developers have to get over is understanding the Python packaging ecosystem. This blog post is based on material covered in our Python for Programmers training course, which attempts to explain pip and virtualenv for new Python users.
Python for Programmers is aimed at developers who are already familiar with one or more programming languages, and so we assume a certain amount of technical knowledge. It will help if you're reasonably comfortable with a command line. The examples below use
bash, which is the default shell on Macs and most Linux systems. But the commands are simple enough that the concepts should be transferrable to any terminal, such as PowerShell for Windows.
PyPI (which you'll occasionally see referred to as The Cheeseshop) is a repository for open-source third-party Python packages. It's similar to RubyGems in the Ruby world, PHP's Packagist, CPAN for Perl, and NPM for Node.js.
Python actually has another, more primitive, package manager called
easy_install, which is installed automatically when you install Python itself. pip is vastly superior to
easy_install for lots of reasons, and so should generally be used instead. You can use
easy_install to install pip as follows:
$ sudo easy_install pip
You can then install packages with pip as follows (in this example, we're installing Django):
# DON'T DO THIS $ sudo pip install django
Here, we're installing Django globally on the system. But in most cases, you shouldn't install packages globally. Read on to find out why.
virtualenv solves a very specific problem: it allows multiple Python projects that have different (and often conflicting) requirements, to coexist on the same computer.
What problem does it solve?
To illustrate this, let's start by pretending virtualenv doesn't exist. Imagine we're we're going to write a Python program that needs to make HTTP requests to a remote web server. We're going to use the Requests library, which is brilliant for that sort of thing. As we saw above, we can use pip to install Requests.
But where on your computer does
pip install the packages to? Here's what happens if I try to run
pip install requests:
$ pip install requests Downloading/unpacking requests Downloading requests-1.1.0.tar.gz (337Kb): 337Kb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package requests Installing collected packages: requests Running setup.py install for requests error: could not create '/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/requests': Permission denied
Oops! It looks like
pip is trying to install the package into
/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/requests. This is a special directory that Python knows about. Anything that's installed in
site-packages can be imported by your programs.
We're seeing the error because
/Library/ (on a Mac) is not usually writeable by "ordinary" users. To fix the error, we can run
sudo pip install requests (
sudo means "run this command as a superuser"). Then everything will work fine:
$ sudo pip install requests Password: Downloading/unpacking requests Running setup.py egg_info for package requests Installing collected packages: requests Running setup.py install for requests Successfully installed requests Cleaning up...
This time it worked. We can now type
python and try importing our new library:
>>> import requests >>> requests.get('http://dabapps.com') <Response >
So, we now know that we can
import requests and use it in our program. We go ahead and work feverishly on our new program, using
requests (and probably lots of other libraries from PyPI too). The software works brilliantly, we make loads of money, and our clients are so impressed that they ask us to write another program to do something slightly different.
But this time, we find a brand new feature that's been added to
requests since we wrote our first program that we really need to use in our second program. So we decide to upgrade the
requests library to get the new feature:
sudo pip install --upgrade requests
Everything seems fine, but we've unknowingly created a disaster!
Next time we try to run it, we discover that our original program (the one that made us loads of money) has completely stopped working and is raising errors when we try to run it. Why? Because something in the API of the
requests library has changed between the previous version and the one we just upgraded to. It might only be a small change, but it means our code no longer uses the library correctly. Everything is broken!
Sure, we could fix the code in our first program to use the new version of the
requests API, but that takes time and distracts us from our new project. And, of course, a seasoned Python programmer won't just have two projects but dozens - and each project might have dozens of dependencies! Keeping them all up-to-date and working with the same versions of every library would be a complete nightmare.
How does virtualenv help?
virtualenv solves this problem by creating a completely isolated virtual environment for each of your programs. An environment is simply a directory that contains a complete copy of everything needed to run a Python program, including a copy of the
python binary itself, a copy of the entire Python standard library, a copy of the
pip installer, and (crucially) a copy of the
site-packages directory mentioned above. When you install a package from PyPI using the copy of
pip that's created by the
virtualenv tool, it will install the package into the
site-packages directory inside the virtualenv directory. You can then use it in your program just as before.
How can I install virtualenv?
If you already have
pip, the easiest way is to install it globally
sudo pip install virtualenv. Usually
virtualenv are the only two packages you ever need to install globally, because once you've got both of these you can do all your work inside virtual environments.
virtualenv comes with a copy of
pip which gets copied into every new environment you create, so
virtualenv is really all you need. You can even install it as a separate standalone package (rather than from PyPI). This might be easier for Windows users. See virtualenv.org for instructions.
How do I create a new virtual environment?
You only need the
virtualenv tool itself when you want to create a new environment. This is really simple. Start by changing directory into the root of your project directory, and then use the
virtualenv command-line tool to create a new environment:
$ cd ~/code/myproject/ $ virtualenv env New python executable in env/bin/python Installing setuptools............done. Installing pip...............done.
env is just the name of the directory you want to create your virtual environment inside. It's a common convention to call this directory
env, and to put it inside your project directory (so, say you keep your code at
~/code/projectname/, the environment will be at
~/code/projectname/env/ - each project gets its own
env). But you can call it whatever you like and put it wherever you like!
Note: if you're using a version control system like
git, you shouldn't commit the
env directory. Add it to your
.gitignore file (or similar).
How do I use my shiny new virtual environment?
If you look inside the
env directory you just created, you'll see a few subdirectories:
$ ls env bin include lib
The one you care about the most is
bin. This is where the local copy of the
python binary and the
pip installer exists. Let's start by using the copy of
pip to install
requests into the virtualenv (rather than globally):
$ env/bin/pip install requests Downloading/unpacking requests Downloading requests-1.1.0.tar.gz (337kB): 337kB downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package requests Installing collected packages: requests Running setup.py install for requests Successfully installed requests Cleaning up...
It worked! Notice that we didn't need to use
sudo this time, because we're not installing
requests globally, we're just installing it inside our home directory.
Now, instead of typing
python to get a Python shell, we type
env/bin/python, and then...
>>> import requests >>> requests.get('http://dabapps.com') <Response >
But that's a lot of typing!
virtualenv has one more trick up its sleeve. Instead of typing
env/bin/pip every time, we can run a script to activate the environment. This script, which can be executed with
source env/bin/activate, simply adjusts a few variables in your shell (temporarily) so that when you type
python, you actually get the Python binary inside the virtualenv instead of the global one:
$ which python /usr/bin/python $ source env/bin/activate $ which python /Users/jamie/code/myproject/env/bin/python
So now we can just run
pip install requests (instead of
env/bin/pip install requests) and
pip will install the library into the environment, instead of globally. The adjustments to your shell only last for as long as the terminal is open, so you'll need to remember to rerun
source env/bin/activate each time you close and open your terminal window. If you switch to work on a different project (with its own environment) you can run
deactivate to stop using one environment, and then
source env/bin/activate to activate the other.
Activating and deactivating environments does save a little typing, but it's a bit "magical" and can be confusing. Make your own decision about whether you want to use it.
virtualenv and pip make great companions, especially when you use the
requirements feature of pip. Each project you work on has its own
requirements.txt file, and you can use this to install the dependencies for that project into its virtual environment:
env/bin/pip install -r requirements.txt
See the pip documentation for more details.
- pip is a tool for installing packages from the Python Package Index.
- virtualenv is a tool for creating isolated Python environments containing their own copy of
pip, and their own place to keep libraries installed from PyPI.
- It's designed to allow you to work on multiple projects with different dependencies at the same time on the same machine.
- You can see instructions for installing it at virtualenv.org.
- After installing it, run
virtualenv envto create a new environment inside a directory called
- You'll need one of these environments for each of your projects. Make sure you exclude these directories from your version control system.
- To use the versions of
pipinside the environment, type
- You can "activate" an environment with
source env/bin/activateand deactivate one with
deactivate. This is entirely optional but might make life a little easier.
pip and virtualenv are indispensible tools if you're a regular Python user. Both are fairly simple to understand, and we highly recommend getting to grips with them.
If this blog post has sparked your interest in learning Python, check out our Python for Programmers workshop at DabApps HQ in Brighton.blog comments powered by Disqus